Fluency resources and readings

Key research articles and teaching guides

Hasbrouck, J. & Tindal, G. (2017). An update to compiled ORF norms (Technical Report No. 1702). Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon.

Kim, Y. G., Park, C. H., and Wagner, R. K. (2014). Is oral/text reading fluency a “bridge” to reading comprehension? Reading and Writing, 27(1), 79–99.

Klauda, S. L. & Guthrie, J. T. (2008). Relationships of three components of reading fluency to reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology100(2), 310-321.

Konza, D. (2011). Understanding the reading process: Fluency. South Australian Department of Education and Children’s Services.

Padeliadu, S. & Giazitzidou, S. (2018). A synthesis of research on reading fluency development: Study of eight meta-analyses. European Journal of Special Education Research3(4), 232-256.

Rasinksi, T. V. (2004)Assessing reading fluency. Pacific Resources for Education and Learning.

Shanahan, T. (2012). Developing fluency in the context of effective literacy instruction. In T. Rasinski, C. Blachowicz, & K. Lems (Eds.), Fluency instruction: Research-based best practices (2nd ed., pp.17-34). Guildford.

Wheldall, K. & Wheldall, R. (2020). Mentioning the WARs: Let’s do the timed WARP again. Learning Difficulties Australia Bulletin52 (1), 17-19.

Teaching resources

High interest authentic texts suitable for fluency practice

Reading A-Z 
Low cost downloadable fluency teaching resources

Read Naturally
Reading fluency intervention, with free sample texts available

Free downloadable texts suitable for fluency practice

Text Project
Free downloadable texts suitable for fluency practice


An open access chapter of this book by Rasinski et al. is available here.

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