Key research articles and teaching guides

Hasbrouck, J. & Tindal, G. (2017). An update to compiled ORF norms (Technical Report No. 1702). Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon.

Kim, Y. G., Park, C. H., and Wagner, R. K. (2014). Is oral/text reading fluency a “bridge” to reading comprehension? Reading and Writing, 27(1), 79–99.

Klauda, S. L. & Guthrie, J. T. (2008). Relationships of three components of reading fluency to reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(2), 310-321.

Konza, D. (2011). Understanding the reading process: Fluency. South Australian Department of Education and Children’s Services.

Padeliadu, S. & Giazitzidou, S. (2018). A synthesis of research on reading fluency development: Study of eight meta-analyses. European Journal of Special Education Research, 3(4), 232-256.

Rasinksi, T. V. (2004). Assessing reading fluency. Pacific Resources for Education and Learning.

Shanahan, T. (2012). Developing fluency in the context of effective literacy instruction. In T. Rasinski, C. Blachowicz, & K. Lems (Eds.), Fluency instruction: Research-based best practices (2nd ed., pp.17-34). Guildford.

Wheldall, K. & Wheldall, R. (2020). Mentioning the WARs: Let’s do the timed WARP again. Learning Difficulties Australia Bulletin, 52 (1), 17-19.


Teaching resources

Iowa Reading Research Centre Professional Learning modules on Varied Practice instruction, with accompanying teaching resources

Reading A-Z Low cost downloadable fluency teaching resources