‘Older struggling readers’ are students in Year 4 and above, when literacy teaching moves from initial instruction in word reading to higher level knowledge and skills. In these school years, text complexity and reading demands increase and students who have not developed fundamental reading skills fall further and further behind. So what needs to be done? Do these students still require phonics?
Older children who struggle with reading almost always have a deficit in decoding or vocabulary or both (Nation, 2018). It is therefore important to determine through assessment which components of reading underlie their difficulties. In their book Thinking Reading: What every secondary teacher needs to know about reading, James and Dianne Murphy provide practical advice for secondary teachers on identifying the specific reading skill/s that require remediation.
Among students who have poor decoding, there may be problems with any, or a combination of, phonological skills necessary to learn to read, including phonological awareness, rapid automatised naming, phonological short term/working memory and/or phonic decoding.
Some people are critical of phonics because they believe it has failed the older reader and therefore is an ineffective way to teach students. Others criticise phonemic awareness and believe that it is irrelevant for older readers (O’Connor, 2011). What we now know, as demonstrated by a substantial amount of evidence, is that phonemic awareness plays an essential role in developing a sight vocabulary (Duff & Hulme, 2012; Ehri, 2009; Ehri, 2014; Kilpatrick, 2015; Torgesen, 2004; van den Broek & Geudens, 2012). We also know that phonics in itself is not sufficient to teach students to read, however, without phonic knowledge you cannot learn to read an alphabetic code. This means both phonemic awareness and phonics are still important for older readers.
The advanced phonemic awareness skills should not be developed in the absence of phonics, in fact they are best developed with phonics (phoneme grapheme correspondences). According to the body of research examined by Kilpatrick, 2015, the best reading remediation involves three essential elements;
Older struggling readers require multidimensional reading programs that include study in vocabulary, fluency, word study (including word recognition, analysis, morphology and structure), comprehension and motivation (Boardman et al., 2008).
A student who is struggling to learn to read usually avoids reading. Practicing reading is important for several reasons. Firstly, partially known words become automatic as the reader encounters these words in connected texts. Secondly, the reader is exposed to new words which they have to figure out using their phonic knowledge combined with context. This exposure to new words increases their vocabulary via stems, roots, prefixes and suffixes that make up the morphemes of the English language and they come to understand that these morphemes change the grammatical function of a word.
Furthermore, they begin to see that many words share a common orthography with related meanings despite their differences in pronunciation e.g., sign, signing, signal and signature. Practice with these ‘chunks’ of language can improve reading fluency and increase their comprehension.
Whilst good readers get better at reading with plenty of practice, the poor readers avoid the task of reading and miss out on countless opportunities to build vocabulary, fluency and comprehension and fall even further behind their peers, this is known as the ‘Matthew Effect’ (Locher & Pfost, 2019).
Reading researchers (Nagy & Herman, 1987) have estimated that a student who reads for 4.6 minutes a day is exposed to 282,000 words per year, whereas a student who reads for 20 minutes a day will be exposed to 1.8 million words per year. Compare this to a student who avoids reading and reads for less than 1 minute per day; they are exposed to a mere 8,000 words per year.
Older students may wish to choose their own authentic reading material because they are often highly motivated to want to read it, however, there are now a range of decodable texts with story lines that appeal to the older students that do not contain overly complex phoneme-grapheme relationships such as the Catch up Readers and TAP phonics books for Ipad. We should not be giving struggling older readers beginner decodable books to read that may be found in a kindergarten or prep level classroom that have illustrations obviously aimed at these younger students.
We should also be mindful that students who are in late primary through to high school will require time for additional instruction as described above until they are reading at grade level. Until students receive such instruction they will require accommodations to enable them to keep up with the increasing demands and pace of the classroom.
Older struggling readers will benefit from
Older struggling readers are still in need of good quality reading instruction that includes explicit instruction in phonics and phonemic awareness alongside high quality vocabulary, fluency and comprehension instruction – it’s never too late.
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